VerneMQ uses the Erlang distribution mechanism for most inter-node communication. VerneMQ identifies other machines in the cluster using Erlang identifiers (e.g.
[email protected]). Erlang resolves these node identifiers to a TCP port on a given machine via the Erlang Port Mapper daemon (epmd) running on each cluster node.
By default, epmd binds to TCP port 4369 and listens on the wildcard interface. For inter-node communication, Erlang uses an unpredictable port by default; it binds to port 0, which means the first available port.
For ease of firewall configuration, VerneMQ can be configured to instruct the Erlang interpreter to use a limited range of ports. For example, to restrict the range of ports that Erlang will use for inter-Erlang node communication to 6000-7999, add the following lines to vernemq.conf on each VerneMQ node:
erlang.distribution.port_range.minimum = 6000
erlang.distribution.port_range.maximum = 7999
The settings above are only used for distributing subscription updates and maintenance messages. For distributing the 'real' MQTT messages the proper
vmqlistener must be configured in the vernemq.conf.
listener.vmq.clustering = 0.0.0.0:44053
This section, "VerneMQ Inter-node Communication", is a derivative of Security and Firewalls by Riak, used under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.